The control of Mosquitoes and, namely, associated vector borne diseases is an area of primary focus of Intelligent Insect Control.
The means applied to this end have always been innovative and with respect for the users and the enviroment in which they are applied. These include control of mosquito population in urban areas, personal protective devices, such as Long Lasting Impregnated Mosquito nets, impregnated tarpualins for camps, paint and delivering knowledge and consulting services to initiatives by governments, NGOs and other private organisations.
"Cost of Integrated Vector Control With Improved Sanitation and Road Infrastructure Coupled With the Use of Slow-Release Bacillus sphaericus Granules in a Tropical Urban Setting",OLE SKOVMAND, THIERRY D. A. OUEDRAOGO, EDITH SANOGO, HELLE SAMUELSEN, LEA PARE´ TOE´, RUNE BOSSELMANN, TONNY CZAJKOWSKI, AND THIERRY BALDET. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 48, no. 4
A Þeld test of integrated vector control was conducted in a tropical urban setting with a combination of a ßoating, slow-release, granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus and environmental engineering measures (renovation of roads, collective water pumps, and cesspool lids).
The good results have been in other articles. This article assesses the feasibility of the program in comparison to local expediture for mosquito control and demonstrates how locals can be engaged to implement a comprehensive mosquito control program in an urban setting.
Link to article @ Medical Entomology free pdf format
"Strength of bed nets as function of denier, knitting pattern, texturizing and polymer",Ole Skovmand and Rune Bosselmann. Malaria Journal 2011, 10:87
Bursting strength is a standard method for evaluating mosquito net strength. This article suggests that a tension strength method using one grab and one hook better represents how holes are generated in bed nets in real life and thus better predicst actual net resistance to tearing than up untill now used bursting strength measure. The standardized method is supposed to mimic situations where a net gets caught on a pointed object while being pulled, e.g. a nail on a bedframe when the net is taken down for the day.
The results showed a greater difference in strength between multifilament and monofilament than observed using standard bursting strength. This may help to explain differences in durability between the different LLIN type as observed in the field. The explanation is likely that the fine polyester filaments break one at the time when exposed to this kind of uneven and focused strain. The data generated by the CITEVE institute showed the polyethylene net Duranet (Clarke) is likely the net best resisting tearing while the polyester net Interceptor (BASF) is least tear resistant. When comparing the field of WHOPES recommended nets, the polyethylene nets resist a force that is 2.5 times greater than that a polyester net can be subjected before breaking at the mesh.
Link to article @ Malaria Journal and a link to discussion of the article at Malaria World
"Insecticidal Bednets for the Fight Against Malaria – Present Time and
Near Future",Ole Skovmand. The Open Biology Journal, 2010, 3, 92-96
Malaria is to-day a tropical disease that especially has major impact in Subsahelian Africa. The current largescale campaign against malaria focuses on better first line use of medication and prevention: (1) the combined use of an Artimisin derivative and one of several synthetic anti-malarials; and (2) the use of insecticidal bednets for transmission prevention, since the disease is transmitted between humans by female mosquitoes. The change from nets that were to be treated and often re-treated to factory pre-treated nets about 7 years ago, made the change from a promising research tool to a major campaign tool. However, once the first line problem of fast disappearance of insecticide treatment was solved, other problems appeared such as physical net durability and low use rate of bednets among people that do not see only the advantages of the nets, but also experience the inconvenience of their use in the daily life. Finally, resistance to
insecticides is appearing, probably originating from agricultural use of the same insecticides, but now amplified by the extensive use of insecticides for malaria control. A call for use of common sense and diversified use of insecticides is
Link to article @ The Open Biology Journal
"Decreased motivation in the use of insecticide-treated nets in a malaria endemic area in Burkina Faso", Lea Pare Toe, Ole Skovmand, Kounbobr Roch Dabire, Abdoulaye Diabate, Yveline Diallo, Tinga Robert Guiguemde, Julien Marie Christian Doannio, Martin Akogbeto, Thierry Baldet and Marc-Eric Gruenais. Malaria Journal 2009, 8:175doi:10.1186/1475-2875-8-175, 29 July 2009
The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is an important tool in the Roll Back Malaria strategy. For ITNs to be effective they need to be used correctly. Previous studies have shown that many factors, such as wealth, access to health care, education, ethnicity and gender, determine the ownership and use of ITNs. Some studies showed that free distribution and public awareness campaigns increased the rate of use. However, there have been no evaluations of the short- and long-term impact of such motivation campaigns. A study carried out in a malaria endemic area in south-western Burkina Faso indicated that this increased use declined after several months. The reasons were a combination of the community representation of malaria, the perception of the effectiveness and usefulness of ITNs and also the manner in which households are organized by day and by night.
Link to article @ Malariajournal
"Impact of Slow-Release Bacillus sphaericus Granules on Mosquito Populations Followed in a Tropical Urban Environment", Skovmand, Ole; Ouedraogo, Thierry D. A.; Sanogo, Edith; Samuelsen, Helle; Toé, Lea P.; Baldet, Thierry. Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 46, Number 1, January 2009 , pp. 67-76(10)
A floating, slow-release, granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus (Neide) was used to control mosquito larvae in two suburban areas of two tropical cities: Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A circular area of 2 km2, diameter 1,600 m, was treated in each city using a similar, smaller area 1 km away as an untreated control. Mosquito captures were made in houses in four concentric circles, from the periphery to the center; each circle was 50 m in width. Mosquitoes were captured in CDC light traps or from human landings. More than 95% of the mosquitoes were Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). The human landing catches provided twice as many mosquitoes as did the CDC traps/night/house. The treatments resulted in important reductions relative to the control area and to preintervention captures. The reduction was more prominent in the inner circle (up to 90%) than in the outer circle (50-70%), presumably because of the impact of immigrating mosquitoes from nontreated breeding sites around the intervention area. This effect was more pronounced for light trap catches than from human landings. The impact of treatment was also measured as the mean ratio of mosquito density in the two outer circles to that of the two inner circles. This ratio was ∼1:1 before the intervention and reached 1:0.43 during the intervention. This comparison does not depend on the assumption that, in the absence of intervention, the mosquito population development in the two areas would have been identical, but does depend on the homogeneity of the intervention area. The study showed that it is possible to organize mosquito control in a tropical, urban environment by forming and rapidly training teams of young people to carry out the mosquito control mostly using a biopesticide that can be applied without any tools except an iron bar to lift lids on some cesspits.
Link to article @ Journal of Medical Entomology
"Median knock-down time as a new method for evaluating insecticide-treated textiles for mosquito control", Ole Skovmand, Julien Bonnet, Olivier Pigeon and Vincent Corbel, Malaria Journal 2008, 7:114
Insecticide treated bed nets are major tools for the Roll Back Malaria campaign. There are two types of Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LNs) on the market: coated nets and insecticide-incorporated nets. Nets provided to this market need a recommendation from the World Health Organization to be purchased by donors and NGOs. During laboratory study (phase I), the first step consists in evaluating the wash resistance of a new LN product. When insecticide-incorporated nets are washed, it takes time to regenerate the insecticidal activity, i.e. insecticide must migrate to the net surface to be accessible to mosquitoes. The interval of time required for regeneration must be carefully determined to ensure the accuracy of further results. WHOPES procedures currently recommend the determination of the regeneration time by using mortality data. However, as mortality cannot exceed 100%, a LN that regenerates a surface concentration exceeding the dosage for 100% mortality, will have its regeneration time underestimated.
The present article presents a new way to measure regeneration time. This method is recommended especially for following changes in surface concentrations of insecticide treated materials. Linearity of the method is documented for coated nets as for a commercial insecticide incorporated net. For LNs, the method provides a complementary and reliable way in determining regeneration time after washing.
Link to article @ Malaria Journal
"Microbial control in Southeast Asia", Ole Skovmand, Invertebrate Pathology, volume 95, Iss 3, July 2007
Abstract - Link to download (payment required for some)
Beginning in the 1980s, concerns about the deleterious effects of synthetic pesticides have driven a significant Southeast Asian research and development effort directed towards alternative pest control strategies, including the use of microbial control agents. Despite this effort, use of microbial control agents has grown slowly in the region. This is the result of an interplay between internal factors such as economics, national research programs, farmer education, manufacturing capabilities and regulatory frameworks, and external factors such as the influence of neighboring countries (particularly China), the availability of competitive pest control products, import regulations on pesticide residues and the activities of donor agencies. The role of these factors in providing both incentives and barriers to the adoption of microbial control are explored, and examples of promising projects are examined as a means of pointing the way forward towards increased progress in the future.
"Personal protection of long lasting insecticide-treated nets in areas of Anopheles gambiae s.s. resistance to pyrethroids", Roch K Dabiré1, Abdoulaye Diabaté1, Thierry Baldet, Léa Paré-Toé, Robert T Guiguemdé, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo1, and Ole Skovmand. Malaria Journal 2006, 5:12
The development of mosquito nets pre-treated with insecticide, Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs) that last the life span of the net, is a solution to the difficulty of the re-impregnation of conventional nets. Even if they showed a good efficacy in control conditions, their efficacy in the field, particularly in areas with resistance of Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids, is not well documented. This study compares wide (Olyset®) and small (Permanet®) mesh LLINs in field conditions, using entomological parameter.
Link to article on Malaria Journal
"Prevention of mosquito nuisance among urban populations in Burkina Faso", Helle Samuelsen, Léa Paré Toé, Thierry Baldet and Ole Skovmand, Social Science & Medicine Volume 59, Issue 11, December 2004, Pages 2361-2371
Abstract - Link to download (payment required for some)
This paper addresses the problems of mosquito control in urban areas of Burkina Faso. The main objectives are to examine relevant socio-cultural aspects in relation to a mosquito control intervention using a biolarvicide with main emphasis on local perceptions of mosquito nuisance and existing practices of mosquito control, including the cost of protective measures at household level. This is the report of an inter-disciplinary research project carried out in the two major towns of Burkina Faso, Bobo-Dioulasso and Ouagadougou, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the ethnographic part of the study. Two questionnaire surveys were conducted in both study areas: one prior to the intervention (n=1083) and the other after the intervention of the treatments with bio-larvicide (n=956). In addition, 70 in-depth interviews and 17 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. The findings show that mosquitoes are considered an important problem in the urban areas, both as a nuisance and a health risk and that the local population is very active in applying mosquito control measures at the household level. The intervention project was received positively by the local population with a decline in the perceived level of annoyance. The causal relationship between mosquitoes and malaria is clear, but the explanatory framework of the relationship between mosquitoes and other diseases is still under debate. The most common prevention methods are mosquito coils and aerosol spray, even though bed nets are perceived to be the most efficient and effective method. The investments in coils and aerosol sprays alone would mean an increase of 40% in the national figures for health expenditure at household level.